Impact of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (tdap) vaccine use in wound management on health care costs and pertussis cases
Talbird, S., Graham, J., Mauskopf, J., Masseria, C., & Krishnarajah, G. (2015). Impact of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (tdap) vaccine use in wound management on health care costs and pertussis cases. Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, 21(1), 88-99.
BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends the use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine for routine wound management in adolescents and adults who require a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine who were vaccinated >/=5 years earlier with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine, and who have not previously received Tdap. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the overall budget and health impact of vaccinating individuals presenting for wound management with Tdap instead of Td vaccine, the current standard of care in practices that do not use Tdap for purposes of wound management. METHODS: A decision-analytic economic model was developed to estimate the expected increase in direct medical costs and the expected number of cases of pertussis avoided associated with the use of Tdap instead of Td vaccine in the wound management setting. Patients eligible for Tdap were aged 10+ years and required a tetanus-containing vaccine. Age-specific wound incidence data and Td and Tdap vaccination rates were taken from the National Health Interview Survey and the National Immunization Survey for the most recent available year. Age-specific pertussis incidence used in this analysis (151 per 100,000 for adolescents, 366 per 100,000 for those aged 20-64 years, and 176 per 100,000 for those aged 65+ years) used reported incidence rates adjusted by a factor of 10 for adolescents and by a factor of 100 for adults, based on assumptions previously made by ACIP to account for underreporting. Vaccine wholesale acquisition costs without federal excise tax were assumed in the base case. Efficacy of vaccination with Tdap in preventing pertussis was based on clinical trial data. Possible herd immunity effects of vaccination were not included in the model. Costs associated with vaccination and treatment of pertussis cases were reported as total annual costs and per-member-per-month (PMPM) costs for hypothetical health plans and for the U.S. population. Aggregate and incremental costs and pertussis cases avoided were presented undiscounted (as recommended for budget-impact analyses) annually and cumulatively over a 3-year time horizon in 2012 U.S. dollars. Scenario analyses were conducted on key parameters, including wound incidence, pertussis incidence, vaccine efficacy and waning protection against pertussis, uptake rates for Tdap, and vaccine prices using alternative data sources or alternative clinically relevant assumptions. RESULTS: For a health plan with 1 million covered lives aged less than 65 years, vaccination with Tdap instead of Td was estimated to cost an additional $132,364 ($0.01 PMPM) in the first year and an additional $368,640 ($0.01 PMPM) cumulatively over 3 years. For a health plan with 1 million covered lives aged 65+ years, vaccination with Tdap instead of Td was estimated to cost an additional $201,165 ($0.02 PMPM) in the first year and an additional $549,568 ($0.02 PMPM) cumulatively over 3 years. For the U.S. population aged 10+ years, vaccination with Tdap instead of Td was estimated to result in protection against pertussis for an additional 2.7 million patients with wounds annually and was estimated to cost an additional $121,101,671 to avoid 42,104 cases of pertussis over the 3-year time horizon. Results were sensitive to input parameter values, particularly parameters associated with the number of patients with wounds vaccinated with Tdap (range 2.7 to 5.1 million patients). However, for all of the alternative scenarios tested, the expected increase in PMPM costs ranged from less than $0.01 to $0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of adolescents and adults with Tdap for wound management may result in an increase in PMPM costs for health plans of less than $0.01 to $0.03. Given the potential reduction in pertussis cases at the population level, vaccination with Tdap for routine wound management could be considered as another strategy to help address the pertussis public health concern in the United States