Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity
OBJECTIVES: To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment. SUBJECTS: Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Objective productivity and absenteeism data were supplied by the employer. Subjective assessments of productivity were collected using a self report instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ). RESULTS: Current smokers had significantly greater absenteeism than did never smokers, with former smokers having intermediate values; among former smokers, absenteeism showed a significant decline with years following cessation. Former smokers showed an increase in seven of 10 objective productivity measures as compared to current smokers, with a mean increase of 4.5%. While objective productivity measures for former smokers decreased compared to measures for current smokers during the first year following cessation, values for former smokers were greater than those for current smokers by 1-4 years following cessation. Subjective assessments of 'productivity evaluation by others' and 'personal life satisfaction' showed significant trends with highest values for never smokers, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace productivity is increased and absenteeism is decreased among former smokers as compared to current smokers. Productivity among former smokers increases over time toward values seen among never smokers. Subjective measures of productivity provide indications of novel ways of productivity assessment that are sensitive to smoking status
Halpern, M., Shikiar, R., Rentz, AM., & Khan, ZM. (2001). Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity. Tobacco Control, 10(3), 233-238.