Imaging transporters for dopamine and other neurotransmitters in brain
There has been substantial progress in the imaging of dopamine transporters. The earliest positron emission tomography (PET) experiments used carbon-11 labeled nominfensine, whereas recent investigations by both PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) utilize a variety of ligands with a variety of properties and address many biological questions. The earliest ligands utilized, [11C]nomifensine and [11C]cocaine, were somewhat limited because of low signal-to-noise ratios Nevertheless, [11C]cocaine as a ligand continues to be popular, because it is the same authentic substance that is abused around the world. The best, current 3-substituted phenyltropane ligands, such as RTI-55, have vastly improved signal-to-noise ratios.
Kuhar, MJ., Carroll, F., Lewin, A., Boja, J., Scheffel, U., & Wong, D. (1996). Imaging transporters for dopamine and other neurotransmitters in brain. In MEA. Reith (Ed.), Neurotransmitter Transporters: Structure, Function, and Regulation (pp. 297-314). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.