Apelin peptides function as endogenous ligands of the APJ receptor and have been implicated in a number of important biological processes. While several apelinergic peptides have been reported, apelin-13 (Glu-Arg-Pro-Arg-Leu-Ser-His-Lys-Gly-Pro-Met-Pro-Phe) remains the most commonly studied and reported ligand of APJ. This study examines the effect of C-terminal peptide truncations and comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a series of analogs based on apelin-13 in an attempt to develop more potent and stable analogs. C-terminal truncation studies identified apelin-13 (N-acetyl 2-11) amide (9) as a potent agonist (EC50 = 4.4 nM). Comprehensive SAR studies also determined that Arg-2, Leu-5, Lys-8, Met-11, were key positions for determining agonist potency, whereas the hydrophobic volume of Lys-8 was a specific determinate of activity. Plasma stability studies on the truncated 10-mer peptide 28 (EC50 = 33 nM) indicated the primary sites of cleavage occurred between Nle-3 and Leu-4 and also between Ala-5 and Ala-6. These new ligands represent the shortest known apelin peptides with good functional potency. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Identifying structural determinants of potency for analogs of apelin-13: Integration of C-terminal truncation with structure-activity
Zhang, YY., Maitra, R., Harris, D., Dhungana, S., Snyder, R., & Runyon, S. (2014). Identifying structural determinants of potency for analogs of apelin-13: Integration of C-terminal truncation with structure-activity. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 22(11), 2992-2997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2014.04.001
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