HIV-1 prevalence and risk factors among sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders in Trinidad
OBJECTIVES: To study trends in prevalence and to ascertain risk factors for HIV-1 among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders in Trinidad. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1987-1988 and 1990-1991 at a centralized STD clinic in Port of Spain. A case-control study was carried out to examine in greater detail the demographic and behavioral risk factors for HIV-1 among self-declared heterosexuals in this population. RESULTS: HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-3.9] in 1987-1988 to 13.6% (95% CI, 11.8-15.6) in 1990-1991. Age > or = 40 years [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8], urban residence (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0), and human T-lymphotropic virus-I seropositivity (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were significant risk factors for HIV-1 in 1990-1991. In the case-control analysis, significant independent risk factors for men included current genital ulcer disease (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.2-12.5), current genital warts (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.0), having ever had syphilis (OR, 3.2; 95% CI 1.6-6.1), and use of crack cocaine in the preceding 6 months (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.7-14.2). Corresponding risk factors for women were commercial sex work (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3-25.7), initiation of sexual activity before age 14 years (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0), and past non-gonococcal cervicitis (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3-13.1). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 in this setting is primarily heterosexually transmitted in a milieu of unprotected sexual activity fuelled by a crack cocaine epidemic. Targeted interventions to prevent, detect and treat STD and crack cocaine addiction, as well as disrupt their adverse synergism, may substantially reduce HIV-1 transmission in this population
Cleghorn, FR., Jack, N., Murphy, J., Edwards, J., Mahabir, B., Paul, R., ... Blattner, WA. (1995). HIV-1 prevalence and risk factors among sexually transmitted disease clinic attenders in Trinidad. AIDS, 9(4), 389-394.