A healthy mind in a healthy body: Can in vivo neuroimaging techniquesprovide insights for research, preclinical detection, and treatment?
Lewin, A., Choi, D., Basile, A., Gatley, J., & Leenders, K. (2000, January). A healthy mind in a healthy body: Can in vivo neuroimaging techniques provide insights for research, preclinical detection, and treatment?. Presented at 33rd Annual Winter Conference on Brain Research (WCBR), Breckenridge, CO, January 22-28, 2000, .
Novel HIV-1 therapies reduce circulating viral load and reconstitute immune function, but their effectiveness in preventing, arresting, or reversing the progressive development of HIV-associated dementia (HAD), which occurs in up to 50-60% of infected individuals, is questionable. Postmortem CNS tissue exhibits astrocytosis, microgliosis, and neuronal loss. Animal models and in vitro studies have implicated unincorporated viral protein-fragments, oxidative processes, overactivation of glutamate receptors, and apoptosis in HAD-associated neurodegeneration. Neuroimaging provides an opportunity to detect preclinical CNS changes and to track the effects of treatment agents. This workshop will examine mechanisms of neurodegeneration and the contribution of neuroimaging techniques to research, detection and treatment. To introduce the subject Dennis Choi will discuss chronic neurodegenerative processes with emphasis on specific known and potential triggers. Next, Anthony Basile will argue that glutamate is the r oot of all evil in the brain. Challenges and successes in development of receptor-specific ligands suitable for in vivo neuroimaging will be discussed by Maria Maccecchini. Use of neuroimaging for preclinical detection and for the tracking of neurodegenerative processes in living brain will be described by John Gatley and Nick Leenders. Examples will include the use of available indicators to: (a) follow attempts to slow the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson s and Huntington s disease in humans by use of dopamine agonists or antiglutamatergic substances; and (b) identify candidates for experimental putative neuroprotective and restorative effects (e.g. neurotrophic factors or apoptosis inhibitors) in animal models. Discussion will be directed to the connection between specific neurodegenerative processes and the application of neuroimaging to disease detection and treatment.