Governance, management and financing of education for all: Basic frameworks and case studies
Developing countries have made rapid progress in providing access to basic education for all over the past two decades. However, they have not made much progress in providing education of adequate quality for all. As a result, poor countries rank low on international tests of academic achievement, and within countries there are large income-related, as well as random, disparities in achievement. While not as well-documented, poor countries are also concerned with the fact that the education system has not been able to bring in more institutionalized forms of values transmissions to fill in for the decline of traditional forms of values transmissions. Ministries are therefore often concerned with what they perceive as a decline of values of good citizenship, moral and ethical behavior, and cooperation, which education sytsems do not seem to be in a position to address.