Genetic variation affects congenital heart defect susceptibility in offspring exposed to maternal tobacco use
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are among the most prevalent and serious birth defects, occurring in 8 to 10 of every 1000 live births in the United States. Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between CHDs and maternal smoking, but it remains unknown how genes impact the susceptibility of offspring to CHDs in the presence of maternal tobacco use. METHODS: Using data from 403 case- and 219 control-parental triads enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study between 1998 and 2008, we investigated the association between CHDs and maternal and infant genetic variants involved in the tobacco metabolism and DNA repair pathways among mothers who smoked prenatally. RESULTS: The maternal genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 (PARP2), and ERCC5 genes were identified to be significantly associated with the occurrence of CHDs in the presence of maternal tobacco use. Our analysis also revealed a moderate association between the infant genotypes of polymorphisms in the O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase (OSGEP) gene and increased risk of CHDs among mothers who smoked. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that maternal and infant polymorphisms within the ERCC1, PARP2, ERCC5, and OSGEP genes are associated with CHD risk in the presence of maternal tobacco use. These results may provide insight into the susceptibility of having a pregnancy affected by CHDs among women who smoke. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.