• Journal Article

Formation of Epichlorohydrin, a Known Rodent Carcinogen, Following Oral Administration of 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol in Rats

Citation

Waidyanatha, S., Gaudette, N., Hong, Y., & Fennell, T. (2014). Formation of Epichlorohydrin, a Known Rodent Carcinogen, Following Oral Administration of 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol in Rats. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 27(10), 1787-1795. DOI: 10.1021/tx500239q

Abstract

The observed toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP) in rodents is thought to be due to the formation of reactive metabolites, epichlorohydrin (ECH) and dichloroacetone (DCA). However, there is no direct evidence for the formation of these metabolites from exposure to DCP in rodents due to the challenges of measuring these reactive intermediates directly in vivo. The objective of this work was to investigate the metabolism of DCP to ECH and DCA in vivo by first developing a sensitive analytical method in a suitable biological matrix and analyzing samples from rats administered DCP. DCA reacted rapidly in vitro in rat blood, plasma, and liver homogenate, precluding its detection. Because ECH rapidly disappeared in liver homogenate, but was relatively long-lived in plasma and blood in vitro, blood was selected for analysis of this metabolite. Following a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg DCP in male or female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats, ECH was detected in blood with a maximum concentration reached at <= 133 mM. ECH was cleared rapidly with a half-life of ca. 33 and 48 mm in males and females, respectively. Following a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg ECH in male and female rats, the elimination half-life of ECH was ca. 34 and 20 mm, respectively; the oral bioavailability of ECH was low (males, 5.2%; females, 2.1%), suggesting extensive first pass metabolism of ECH following oral administration. The area under the concentration vs time curve for ECH following oral administration of DCP and intravenous administration of ECH was used to estimate the percent of the DCP dose converted to ECH in rats. On the basis of this analysis, we concluded that in male and female rats following oral administration of 50 mg/kg DCP, >= 126% or >= 138% of the administered dose was metabolized to ECH, respectively