Fetal origin of childhood disease: Intrauterine growth restriction in term infants and risk for hypertension at 6 years of age
Shankaran, S., Das, A., Bauer, C. R., Bada, H., Lester, B., Wright, L., ... Poole, W. (2006). Fetal origin of childhood disease: Intrauterine growth restriction in term infants and risk for hypertension at 6 years of age. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160(9), 977-981.
Objective To examine the association between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) status at birth among full-term infants, exposure to substance use during pregnancy, and risk of hypertension at 6 years of age. <br><br>Design Prospective evaluation of high-risk children. <br><br>Setting Four centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. <br><br>Participants One thousand three hundred eighty-eight infants (600 cocaine exposed, 781 nonexposed, and 7 indeterminate, matched by gestational age, race, and sex), were enrolled at these sites. Nine hundred fifty children (415 exposed, 535 nonexposed) were followed up for 6 years. <br><br>Intervention Right arm blood pressure was measured using the Dinamap portable adult/pediatric monitor with appropriate cuff size. <br><br>Main Outcome Measure Blood pressure levels. Hypertension was defined as either systolic or diastolic blood pressure higher than the 95th percentile for sex, age, and height. <br><br>Results Eight hundred ninety-one children had blood pressure data at 6 years of age: 516 were born at full term; 144 (28%) of the 516 children had a diagnosis of IUGR at birth. At 6 years of age, 93 (19%) of 516 children had hypertension. Of 144 children with IUGR, 35 (24%) had hypertension as compared with 58 (16%) of 372 children without IUGR (P<.05). Twenty percent of cocaine-exposed children had hypertension as compared with 16% of nonexposed children (P = .20). Intrauterine growth restriction status at birth was significantly associated with hypertension (relative risk, 1.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.7]) when multivariable Poisson regression analysis was performed adjusting for site; maternal race, education, and tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and cocaine use during pregnancy; and child's current body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). <br><br>Conclusion In term infants, IUGR is linked to risk of hypertension in early childhood, which may be a marker for adult cardiovascular disease. <br><br><br>