• Journal Article

Effect of Ethnicity and Race on Cognitive and Language Testing at Age 18-22 Months in Extremely Preterm Infants

Citation

Duncan, A. F., Watterberg, K. L., Nolen, T., Vohr, B. R., Adams-Chapman, I., Das, A., & Lowe, J. (2012). Effect of Ethnicity and Race on Cognitive and Language Testing at Age 18-22 Months in Extremely Preterm Infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 160(6), 966-971.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.12.009

Abstract

Objective To evaluate the relationship of race/ethnicity to Cognitive and Language scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition in extremely preterm toddlers (<28 + 0 weeks' estimated gestational age). Study design This cohort study included extremely preterm toddlers seen at Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers evaluated at 18-22 months adjusted age from 3 race/ethnic groups (white, black, and Hispanic white). Multivariate regression modeling was used to identify race/ethnic differences, after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors. Results The study population comprised 369 whites, 352 blacks, and 144 Hispanic whites. Cognitive scores differed among the 3 groups on unadjusted analysis (P <= .001), but not after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors (P = .13). Language scores differed on adjusted and unadjusted analyses. Whites scored higher than blacks and Hispanic whites, and blacks scored higher than Hispanic whites. Conclusions A combination of medical variables and primary caretaker education accounted for differences in Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition Cognitive scores among the 3 groups. Black and Hispanic white toddlers had lower Language scores than whites, even after adjustment. Early intervention should be targeted to these identified risk factors. Assessment of early language development in minority children may be warranted. (J Pediatr 2012;160:966-71)