Economic evaluation of interventions to reduce road traffic injuries--a review of the literature with applications to low and middle-income countries
Waters, H., Hyder, A. A., & Phillips, T. L. (2004). Economic evaluation of interventions to reduce road traffic injuries--a review of the literature with applications to low and middle-income countries. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 16(1), 23-31.
Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) kill over one million people worldwide annually. This article takes the perspective of economic costs and benefits to review the impact of available road safety interventions in industrialized countries--and the potential effect of these interventions in low and middle-income countries, where RTIs pose an increasingly large public health problem. A comprehensive review of the literature on cost-benefits and cost-effectiveness studies related to road traffic injuries internationally, with comparisons of costs adjusted for inflation and exchange differentials was conducted. In the United States (U.S.), motor vehicle inspection laws resulted in annual savings of US $1.7 to $2.3 billion. The installation of seatbelts results in net savings of $162 per vehicle; with benefits outweighing costs by a factor ranging from 240 to 1727. Other cost effective interventions include mandatory seatbelt use, lowering speed limits, motorcycle helmet laws, and traffic calming devices such as speed bumps and road deviations. The dearth of similar economic evaluations of interventions for road traffic injuries in low and middle-income countries represents a serious research gap and hinders the implementation of effective strategies in those countries