• Article

Early Otitis-Media and Later Educational Risk

Fourteen children aged 6 years received screening for educational risk status and formal measures of academic performance. These children have been followed prospectively from birth for their otitis media status. Seven of the children were considered positive for otitis media in year one (recurrent episodes bilaterally), while 7 were considered otitis free. Academic status was related to early hearing acuity (as determined by repeated ABR assessment). Moreover, teachers' ratings of academic risk status were related to a measure at 4 years that examined the children's capacity to listen in background noise


Gravel, JS., Wallace, I., & Ruben, RJ. (1995). Early Otitis-Media and Later Educational Risk. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 115(2), 279-281.