A dry powder combination of pyrazinoic acid and its n-propyl ester for aerosol administration to animals
Durham, P. G., Young, E. F., Braunstein, M. S., Welch, J. T., & Hickey, A. J. (2016). A dry powder combination of pyrazinoic acid and its n-propyl ester for aerosol administration to animals. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 514(2), 384-391. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.04.063, 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.04.063
Combining the advantage of higher efficacy due to local pulmonary administration of pyrazinoic acid (POA) and potent effect of pyrazinoic acid ester (PAE) delivered as an aerosol would aid in tuberculosis therapy. A combination spray dried dry powder, composed of POA, PAE (n-propyl POA), maltodextrin and leucine, was prepared for aerosol delivery to animals. Solid-state characteristics of morphology (scanning electron microscopy) crystallinity (X-ray powder diffraction), thermal properties (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry) and moisture content (Karl Fisher) were evaluated. Particle size distributions, by volume (laser diffraction) for the dispersed powder and by mass (inertial impaction) were determined. Efficient delivery of the powder to a nose only animal exposure chamber employed a novel rotating brush/micro-fan apparatus. Spherical, crystalline particles were prepared. The volume median diameter, similar to 1.5 mu m, was smaller than the mass median aerodynamic diameter, similar to 3.0 mu m, indicating modest aggregation. Drug content variations were observed across the particle size distribution and may be explained by PAE evaporative losses. Delivery to the nose-only exposure chamber indicated that boluses could be administered at approximately 3 min intervals to avoid aerosol accumulation and effect uniform dose delivery with successive doses suitable for future pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.