Dietary factors and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter
In the United States, cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter (primarily transitional cell carcinomas) are rare and epidemiologic studies are infrequent compared with renal cell cancer (renal parenchyma) of the kidney (primarily adenocarcinomas) or bladder carcinomas [primarily transitional cell carcinomas; (1, 2)]. In this article, we used data from a large case-control study of cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter to examine dietary, anthropometric, and beverage associations. Most previous studies that investigated dietary risk factors for these tumors were combined with cancers of the kidney or bladder primarily due to their anatomic proximity. Earlier publications from this study investigated risks associated with smoking, analgesics, and hypertension (3-6). The strongest risk factor was cigarette smoking [ever smoked odds ratio (OR), 3.1] with long-term smokers having a 7-fold increased risk (6).