Developmental toxicity evaluation of dietary di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizing agent, was evaluated for developmental toxicity in timed-pregnant Fischer 344 rats (22-25 dams/dose) and CD-1 mice (24-30 dams/dose). DEHP was administered in the diet on gestational Days (gd) 0 through 20 at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0% (rats) and on gd 0 through 17 at 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% (mice). At termination (gd 20, rats; gd 17 mice), all fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations and variations. In rats, maternal toxicity and reduced fetal body weight per litter were observed at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. Increased resorptions and decreased number of live fetuses/litter were observed at 2.0%. Maternal food consumption was reduced and water consumption was increased in all DEHP groups. The number and percentage of fetuses malformed per litter were unaffected by treatment. In mice, maternal toxicity, increased resorptions and late fetal deaths, decreased number of live fetuses, and reduced fetal body weight per litter were observed at 0.10 and 0.15%. Maternal food and water consumption exhibited a dose-related upward trend with food consumption significantly increased at 0.15%. The number and percentage of fetuses malformed per litter (open eye, exophthalmia, exencephaly, short, constricted, or no tail, major vessel malformations, fused or branched ribs, and fused or misaligned thoracic vertebral centra) were elevated at 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% DEHP. In conclusion, DEHP was not teratogenic at any dose tested in Fischer 344 rats when administered in the feed throughout gestation but did produce maternal and other embryofetal toxicity at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. In contrast, DEHP administration throughout gestation in CD-1 mice resulted in an increased incidence of malformations at doses which produced maternal and other embryofetal toxicity (0.10 and 0.15%) and at a dose (0.05%) which did not produce significant maternal toxicity. No treatment-related embryofetal toxicity including teratogenicity was observed in mice at 0.025% or in rats at 0.5% DEHP
Tyl, R., Price, C., Marr, M., & Kimmel, CA. (1988). Developmental toxicity evaluation of dietary di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 10(3), 395-412.