Conformational analysis of the tachykinins in solution: substance P and physalaemin
A determination of the solution conformational behavior of two tachykinins, substance P and physalaemin, is described. Two-dimensional homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn (HOHAHA) and rotating-frame cross relaxation spectroscopy (ROESY) are used to obtain complete proton resonance assignments. Interproton distance restraints obtained from ROESY spectroscopy are used to characterize the conformational behavior. These data show that in solution both substance P and physalaemin exist in a mixture of conformational states, rather than as a single three-dimensional structure. In water both peptides prefer to be in an extended chain structure. In methanol, their behavior is described as a mixture of beta-turn conformations in dynamic equilibrium. Solvent titration data and chemical shift temperature coefficients complement the NMR estimate of interproton distances by locating hydrogen bonds and serving to identify predominant conformational states. The C-terminal tetrapeptide segment has the same conformational behavior for both substance P and physalaemin. In physalaemin, the midsegment of the peptide may also be constrained by formation of a salt bridge. The conformational behavior of substance P and physalaemin is discussed in relation to potency and receptor binding properties.