Autologous umbilical cord blood infusion followed by oral docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin D supplementation for C-peptide preservation in children with Type 1 diabetes
We sought to determine if autologous umbilical cord blood (UCB) infusion followed by 1 year of supplementation with vitamin D and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can preserve C-peptide in children with type 1 diabetes. We conducted an open-label, 2:1 randomized study in which 15 type 1 diabetes subjects with stimulated C-peptide > .2 pmol/mL received either (1) autologous UCB infusion, 1 year of daily oral vitamin D (2000 IU), and DHA (38 mg/kg) and intensive diabetes management or (2) intensive diabetes management alone. Primary analyses were performed 1 year after UCB infusion. Treated (N = 10) and control (N = 5) subjects had median ages of 7.2 and 6.6 years, respectively. No severe adverse events were observed. Although the absolute rate of C-peptide decline was slower in treated versus control subjects, intergroup comparisons failed to reach significance (P = .29). Area under the curve C-peptide declined and insulin use increased in both groups (P < .01). Vitamin D levels remained stable in treated subjects but declined in control subjects (P = .01). DHA levels rose in treated subjects versus control subjects (P = .003). CD4/CD8 ratio remained stable in treated subjects but declined in control subjects (P = .03). No changes were seen in regulatory T cell frequency, total CD4 counts, or autoantibody titers. Autologous UCB infusion followed by daily supplementation with vitamin D and DHA was safe but failed to preserve C-peptide. Lack of significance may reflect small sample size. Future efforts will require expansion of specific immunoregulatory cell subsets, optimization of combined immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory agents, and larger study cohorts.