Trends in Morbidity and Mortality Attributable to Injuries and Selected Environmental Hazards
Watkins, D. A., Dabestani, N., Mock, C. N., Cullen, M., Smith, K. R., & Nugent, R. (2017). Trends in Morbidity and Mortality Attributable to Injuries and Selected Environmental Hazards. In Disease Control Priorities: Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Related Disorders (3 ed., Vol. 7, pp. 25-34). World Bank.
This chapter distinguishes two types of burden estimates for injuries deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injuries vs. occupational and environmental hazards. As low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience the effects of globalization, the number of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and fatalities as well as health effects from increasingly polluted air have grown. Other unintentional injuries from poisonings, falls, burns, and drownings, account for twice the number of deaths and DALYs as RTIs. Health loss from carcinogens in particular increased dramatically from 1990 to 2013. In 2012, LMICs experienced 461,000 deaths and 29 million DALYs related to interpersonal violence, and 2013, 6 percent of deaths and 10 percent of DALYs in LMICs in 2013 were attributable to water, sanitation, and hygiene-related illnesses. Even more deaths resulted from ambient and household air pollution with India seeing the most significant effect due to its common use of solid fuels.