Persistence of cigarette smoking: familial liability and the role of nicotine dependence
Design? Cohort study.
Setting? South-east Michigan, United States.
Participants? A subset of 389 daily smokers informative for familial smoking characteristics from an epidemiological sample of young adults 26–35 years old (n = 979).
Measurements? Nicotine dependence criteria were assessed using the NIMH-DIS revised interview and diagnosed according to the DSM-III-R. Familial smoking characteristics were assessed by subject report.
Findings? Absent nicotine dependence, daily smokers with medium and high familial density of persistence were at increased risk of smoking persistence (OR = 4.2 and 7.0, respectively). However, familial density of persistence was not associated with smoking persistence among nicotine dependent daily smokers. Level of education also appeared to limit the influence of familial liability, although nicotine dependence also modified this effect.
Conclusions? Nicotine dependence does not appear to be in the causal pathway from familial liability to smoking persistence, but rather modifies the association between them.